26 Ekim 2010 Salı

Dantel Modelleri Oturma Odası Dantelleri

el modelleri oturma odası dantelleri

atkı ve şapka örnekleri

el örgüsü bebek hırkaları

Bebek Bolerosu

el örgüsü bere modelleri

çocuk beresi örneği…


Örgü Bebek Eldiveni

Tığ İşi Bebek Elbisesi Örneği

tığ işi klozet takımları örnekleri


Gül Motifli Tığ İşi Çanta

katmer gül yapımı dantel örnekleri

uç danteli modelleri

kız çocukları için bebekj yelekleri


yakadan başlama bebek yelekleri



çiçekli bebek yeleği

Bebek Yeleği Örnekleri

bayan çanta modelleri

25 Ekim 2010 Pazartesi

How Offshore Drilling Works

offshore-drilling-1Some people say money makes the world go round. Others insist the key ingredient is love or even music. But whatever drives humanity to carry on from day to day, our dependence on fossil fuels leaves one fact for certain: The axle of our spinning globe is greased with oil.

We consume more than 80 million barrels of the stuff every day [source: CIA]. To meet our ravenous demand for fossil fuels, petroleum companies constantly comb the planet for new reserves. Since oceans cover nearly three-quarters of Earth's surface, a great deal of those reserves wind up underwater. 
Reaching these undersea drilling sites poses quite a challenge. After all, drilling on land is an undertaking on its own. How do you drill in lightless ocean depths and transport all that liquid, gas and solid petroleum back to the surface? How do you keep from polluting the ocean? And how do you do all of this, with tons of special equipment, in the middle of rough seas?
To surmount these obstacles, petroleum companies have invested billions into the development of offshore drilling and offshore oil platforms. The first of these platforms was constructed in 1897 at the end of a wharf in California. In the years to follow, oil prospectors pushed out into the ocean, first on piers and then on artificial islands. In 1928, a Texan oilman unveiled the first mobile oil platform for drilling in wetlands. The structure was little more than a barge with a drilling outfit mounted on top, but it set the example for decades of advancements to come.

In the years that followed, petroleum companies moved even farther into the ocean. In 1947, a consortium of oil companies built the first platform that you couldn't see from land in the Gulf of Mexico. Even the North Sea, which endures nearly constant inclement weather, is currently home to many offshore drilling sites [source: The Guardian].

Today's oil rigs are truly gigantic structures. Some are basically floating cities, employing and housing hundreds of people. Other massive production facilities sit atop undersea towers that descend as far as 4,000 feet (1,219 meters) into the depths -- taller than the world's most ambitious skyscrapers. In an effort to sustain their fossil fuel dependency, humans have built some of the largest floating structures on Earth.
Hunting for Fossil Fuels
offshore-drilling-2While fossil fuels have only become the driving force behind human civilization in the last couple of centuries, oil and natural gas have been making their way back to the Earth's surface for millions of years. Spanish conquistadors observed oil rising to the surface in the Gulf of Mexico in the 16th century, and the Chinese drilled for it in the ground as early as 347 A.D. [source: Totten]. To find even older evidence, you don't have to look any farther than the prehistoric animals unlucky enough to have been consumed by the world's tar pits.

However, most of the world's petroleum is trapped between 500 and 25,000 feet (152 and 7,620 meters) under dirt and rock. All of this oil began as tiny plants and animals called plankton, which died in the ancient seas between 10 and 600 million years ago. This decaying matter drifted to the bottom of the ocean and, over time, was covered with sand and mud. In this oxygen-free environment, a kind of slow cooking process took place. Millions of years of heat and pressure eventually transformed this organic material into vast deposits of liquid, gas and solid petroleum, all capped in traps under thick layers of rock. We call liquid petroleum oil and gaseous petroleum natural gas. Solid petroleum deposits often take the form of oil shale or tar sands
Needless to say, these fossil fuel deposits don't just start bubbling crude every time a hillbilly fires a rifle. Geologists study surface features and satellite maps, check soil and rock samples, and even use a device called a gravity meter to find subtle gravitational fluctuations that might indicate a subterranean flow of oil. Not all of these options are particularly viable, however, if the terrain you're canvassing is thousands of feet below pitching ocean waves.

When searching for fossil fuels at sea, oil geologists are able to use special sniffer equipment to detect traces of natural gas in seawater. But as this method can only help find seeping deposits, oil companies largely depend on two other means of locating traps.

When close to the surface, certain rocks affect the Earth's normal magnetic field. By using sensitive magnetic survey equipment, a ship can pass over an area and map any magnetic anomalies that occur. These readings allow geologists to hunt for the telltale signs of underground traps.

Surveyors can also detect possible traps through the use of seismic surveying. This method, known as sparking, involves sending shock waves down through the water and into the ocean floor. Sound travels at different speeds through different types of rock. If the shock wave reaches a change in rock layers, it bounces back up toward hydrophones dragged behind the survey ship. With the aid of computers, seismologists can then analyze the information to pinpoint possible traps in the Earth.
Survey ships use both compressed air guns and explosives to emit shock waves. Of these two methods, air guns are far less of a threat to sea life, but even acoustic pollution poses a threat to such seismically aware sea animals as the endangered blue whale.

What happens once survey teams detect undersea oil deposits? Well, it's time to mark down the GPS coordinates, plant a buoy and obtain a government lease to begin a little exploratory drilling and see what you've got.

Exploratory Drilling 
offshore-drilling-3You can send shock waves down to the ocean floor all day, but ultimately you're going to have to drill a little if you want to know if you have a potential gusher on your hands. To handle this job, oil companies send out a mobile drilling platform to perform exploratory drilling on a site. Some of these platforms are ship-based, but others have to be towed to the drilling site by other seagoing vessels.

An exploratory drilling rig will typically drill four temporary exploratory wells over a suspected deposit, each taking 60 to 90 days to complete. Geologists initially drill to obtain a core sample. The principle is the same as if you stuck a hollow cylinder into a birthday cake and then removed it. You'd then be able to examine the cylinder to discover what varying layers of icing and cake existed inside the cake. Will there be ice cream? This is one method of finding out without cutting yourself a whole slice.

Of course, oil geologists aren't hoping for ice cream. They're looking for signs of petroleum, which they call a show. Once a show has occurred, drilling stops and geologists perform additional tests to make sure oil quality and quantity are sufficient to justify further action. If so, they then drill additional wells to substantiate the findings. 
Once geologists have established the worth of a petroleum deposit, it's time to drill a production well and begin harvesting the riches. An average well lasts a good 10 to 20 years before it's no longer profitable, so offshore production platforms are built with a long stay in mind. The platforms are typically fixed directly to the ocean floor using either metal and concrete foundations or tethering cables. As you might imagine, the platform has to remain as stationary as possible during all this drilling, no matter how severe the weather becomes.

One platform can boast as many as 80 wells, though not all of them go straight down. Directional drilling allows oil platforms to sink production wells into the ocean floor at an angle in order to reach deposits miles away from the drill site. If you've seen the 2007 film "There Will Be Blood," then you may know this as the "I drink your milkshake!" method. In the film, a maniacal, mustached oilman boasts that, through directional drilling, he's managed to drain all the oil beneath a nearby parcel of land. This issue also arises in the offshore drilling industry. For instance, in California, the state is authorized to drill new wells if it can prove that wells in adjacent federal waters are draining California-owned oil deposits.

Even after its wells have run dry, offshore production platforms often find renewed life as a central hub for other nearby oil platforms. The other platforms pipe petroleum over for processing and/or storage.

So you've sunk millions into erecting your oil rig. Now it's time to get busy drinking that offshore milkshake.
Undersea Drilling
offshore-drilling-4 You've established your multimillion-dollar offshore drilling platform and, miles beneath you, there's a fortune in untapped petroleum deposits. The challenge in undersea drilling is transferring all that precious oil and gas from point A to point B without losing it and polluting the ocean. How do you tunnel into the Earth without water flowing into the hole or all the oil surging up into the sea?

To ensure accurate drilling, engineers connect the drill site to the platform with a subsea drilling template. On a very basic level, this serves the same purpose as the templates you might have used to trace a pattern or carve a jack-o-lantern design into a pumpkin. While the design may vary depending on the exact ocean floor conditions, the drilling template basically resembles a large metal box with holes in it to mark the site of each production well.

Since production wells often have to sink miles into the Earth's crust, the drill itself consists mostly of multiple 30-foot (9.1-meter) drill pipes screwed together, called a drill string. They're much like tent poles in this respect. A turntable on the platform rotates the drill string and, at the other end, a drill bit grinds through the Earth. The drill bit generally consists of either a rotating bit embedded with industrial diamonds or a trio of rotating, interlocking bits with steel teeth. In the weeks or months it takes to reach the oil deposit, the bit may dull and require replacement. Between the platform and the ocean floor, all of this equipment descends through a flexible tube called a marine riser.

As the boring hole descends deeper into the ground, operators send a constant flow of drilling mud down to the drill bit, which then flows back up to the platform. This thick, viscous fluid consists of clay, water, barite and a mixture of special chemicals. The drilling mud lubricates the drill bit, seals the wall of the well and controls pressure inside the well. Also, as the drill bit shreds rock, the resulting fragments become suspended in the mud and leave the well in the rising, return flow. On the surface, a circulation system filters the mud before sending it back down the well.

The drilling mud acts as the first line of defense against high, subterranean pressures, but there's still a high risk of a blowout of fluid from the well. To handle these events, petroleum companies install a blowout prevention system (BOP) on the seafloor. If pressurized oil and gas gush up the well, the BOP will seal the well with hydraulic valves and rams. It will then reroute the surging well fluids into specially designed containment systems.

The drilling process itself occurs in phases. The initial surface hole, with a diameter of about 18 inches (46 centimeters) descends from several hundred to several thousand feet. At this point, engineers remove the drill string and send down hollow segments of metal pipe called casing. Once cemented into place, this conductor pipe barrier lines the hole and prevents leaks and caving. For the next phase, a 12-inch (30-centimeter) drill bit digs the well even deeper. Then, the drill string is again removed so surface casing can be installed. Finally, an 8-inch (20-centimeter) bit bores the rest of the way to the petroleum deposit. This final stretch is called the bottom hole, and is lined with intermediate casing. Throughout this process, a device called a packer travels down the well, expanding against the walls to ensure everything is sealed.
 Striking Oil
offshore-drilling-5 Once the drill hits petroleum, a final bit of casing called a production casing goes down to the bottom of the shaft. This section of casing terminates in a solid cap, closing the well off from the surrounding petroleum reservoir. It may seem a bit odd to seal up the prize once you've finally reached it, but the goal isn't to just vent pressurized oil and gas up to the surface, but to control its flow. Engineers send down explosives to perforate the production casing at different depths to allow petroleum into the well. This allows the oil and gas to reach the surface under less pressure, and not as a blasting geyser.

Initially, the natural pressure from the subsurface petroleum reservoir is sufficient to push fluids and gas to the surface. Eventually, however, this pressure declines, and the use of a pump or injections of gas, oil or water are required to bring the petroleum to the surface. By adding water or gas to the reservoir, engineers are able to increase reservoir pressure, causing the petroleum to rise again. In some cases, compressed air or steam is sent down a well to heat the remaining petroleum, which also increases pressure.

If what came up from the wells was pure petroleum, it would just be a matter of barreling it up at this point. But this isn't usually the case, and it's why offshore drilling platforms often boast full production facilities as well. The liquid that rises up to the platform is a mixture of crude oil, natural gas, water and sediments. Most oil refinement takes place onshore, but oil companies sometimes use converted tanker ships to treat and store oil at sea. This process removes unwanted substances from the oil, prior to refining.
Natural gas falls into two categories: wet and dry. Wet natural gas contains various vaporized liquids, and these have to be filtered out before it can be transported elsewhere. Dry natural gas, on the other hand, is free of these pollutants. At this point, undersea pipelines and oil tankers transport the separated oil and natural gas to onshore storage and treatment plants.

Eventually, a well will either run dry, or the costs of further development will outweigh potential future profits. When this happens, petroleum companies plug and abandon the well. At this point, operators remove platforms from their moorings -- with explosives if need be -- and either relocate them or drag them back to shore for scrap. Divers then cut the well casing off below the surface of the ocean floor and seal it in with concrete. In some cases, however, portions of the oil rig remain and are slowly overtaken by sea life.

Mobile Drilling Platforms
offshore-drilling-6 During the exploratory drilling phase, the goals are simple: Get in, find out if there's oil and then move on to the next site. If a location proves prosperous, then the company can bring in a more permanent structure. But for the months it takes a crew to size up a location, a mobile drilling platform provides everything a team needs with minimal investment. Jack-ups, the most common rigs, typically cost between $180 million and $190 million to build [source: Offshore Magazine]. There are five varieties of mobile drilling platforms.

Drilling barge: Mostly used for shallow drilling in non-ocean waters, thise platform is exactly what it sounds like: a floating barge with drilling equipment. Tugboats tow the platform out to the site, where anchors hold it in place. However, given that drilling barges basically just float on the surface, they're only suitable for calm waters.

Jack-up: This rig resembles a drilling barge, but with one exception. Once this platform reaches the drilling site, it can lower three or four massive legs into the water until they touch the bottom. At this point, they lift the platform out of the water. This provides a much more stable environment from which to drill, as the legs stabilize the platform against winds and lift it above pitching waves. The design has its limits, however, as deeper waters require impractically large legs.

Submersible rig: This drilling platform combines some of the properties of drilling barges and jack-ups. Only in this case, the production facilities are elevated on stilts hundreds of feet above pontoonlike barges. After reaching the drill site, the crew floods the barges with water. The barges sink until they rest on the sea or lake floor, while the platform remains elevated above the water on stilts. In effect, the crew sinks the rig into order to anchor it. When the time comes for the rig to relocate, the crew pumps the water back out of the barges, causing them to float back up to the surface and push the stilted platform back up into the air. Like the jack-up, this platform is limited to shallow waters.

Semisubmersible rig: This platform is much like a submersible rig, except it's designed to work in much deeper waters. Instead of sinking until its lower hull rests on the seafloor (which, in deeper waters, would drown everyone), it simply lets enough water in to lower it to appropriate operating heights. The weight of the lower hull simply stabilizes the drilling platform, while massive anchors hold it in place.

Drill ships: This is essentially an oceangoing vessel with, you guessed it, a drilling platform in the middle. The drill string extends down to the ocean floor through a moon hole. Drill ships operate in very deep water and often have to ride out rough sea conditions. They use dynamic positioning equipment to keep aligned with the drill site. This equipment uses satellite information and sensors on the subsea drilling template to keep track of the drilling location. Using this data, electric motors on the underside of the hull constantly move the ship to keep it lined up with the well.

When it's time for these temporary platforms to move on, the really big rigs enter the picture. On the next page, we'll take a look at the different types of offshore production platforms.

24 Ekim 2010 Pazar

Planet Golf..... Strange happenings from around the game...

Australia1) Two men have been arrested for stealing 31 golf flags. A police spokesman said the flags were taken  from Adelaide's Murray Bridge Golf Club over a period of about 12 months."The two arrested men ,aged 18 and 19, regularly took a short cut through the golf course as they walked home from a local hotel,"the spokesman said.Both men are due to appear in court.

2) Crooks are offering bogus golf course memberships at dodgy venues across Asia. After paying up-front,golfers find the course derelict or in a shocking state of repair . One golf club even invited players to join three different courses. When they turned up to play , though ,they found there was just one course with three different names.

3) Blind golfer Sheila Drummond nailed her first ever ace during a round at Mahoning Valley Country Club,Pensylvania.The 53-year-old holed out at the 144-yard 4th with a driver Drummond ,blind since 1982 because of diabeties, heard her ball strike the flagstick before it dropped . She said: "One of my opponents said : 'Oh that's a great shot'. Then she said 'Its in the cup!'"

4) When golfer Sheila Filice went to look for his ball at Eagle Ridge golf course California, he found more than he bargained for -a huge, injured golden eagle, to be precise .Vets think it was hit by a ball and suffered a broken wing, and say it could cost 5,000 to nurse it back to health . Meanwhile ,in colorado,a black bear that learned how to unlutch the front door at a golf club had to be shot.

5) A public toilet in St andrews has just sold for almost 200,000 four times the guide price .The block was bought by a developer who plans to convert it into a house . St andrews already boasts the most expensive street in Scotland -overlooking the Old Course. The toilet was one of two being sold by Fife Council- the other, in Kirkcaldy,fetched just 38,000

How golf is saving the world

Every day there's a story on the news about looming environmental catastrophe for planet earth-so it's good to know you can do your bit as a golfer. Never one to miss an opportunity, companies are now making green alternatives to traditional golf gear including buggies,tees and shoes...

Solar Powered Buggy
The Sunray is part sun, part battery powered .Perfect  for New Mexico, not so good in crewe.

Recyclable shoes
Hi-Tec has unveiled the world's first environmentally friend golf shoe,the Enviro. Featuring organic vegetable tanned chrome-free leather ,outsoles sockliner , the Enviro is 99 per cent green. The offending one per cent is the spike receptacle.

Biodegradable Tess
Every year billions of wooden and plastic tees are left on courses all over the world. Eco tees are made from'a blend of composite materials and natural additives derived from corn ,that break down the properties of composite overtime.

Recycled pithmark repaires
Old CD cases are melted down to make these snazzy pitchmark repairers,Now we know happened to Victoria Beckham's singing career.

Biodegradable balls
Popular on cruise ships ,these balls are made from water-soluble polymer that has no ill effect on the environtment .Once the ball is dissolved in water, it turns to carbon dioxide and water.

If golf had No Rules...........

we ask manufacturers what they might make....

600cc drivers
Want to hit more fairways than Fred Funk?? How about a 600cc centre-shafted driver with a face 80mm tall and 125mm wide?The COR would be 0.922 and the moment of inertia 7,200 (well above the limits of 0.830 and 5,900) . Moveable parts would be plentiful too. though the R&A has already decided to allow for a greater freedom with moveable weight ( see separate story, below) no rules at all might mean an adjustable face-angle driver whose loft could easily be changed between holes.

The ball
Generally speaking ,a yard can be gained for every 0.01 inch the ball,s diameter is reduced. Decreasing the diameter from 1.68 inches to 1.62 , for example would yield six yards. Heavier would work ,too with about a yard tacked on every half a gramme added . In other words,if the ball is beefed up two grams it should deliver an additional four yards (heavier than that might be counterproductive).  Want more  distance? Boost the ball velocity a bit over the limit. As with most good ideas, there are trade-offs: such a ball ,for example would only benefit someone at a high speed ,and the only reward would be distance ,not playability.

There are no shortage of ideas on how to get the ball into the hole more easily ,too. One propose o putter shaft that is rectangular in cross-section . Such a club would bend easily in the direction of the putt, but very little in the 'droop' direction . This would provide a putter that could be held against the left wrist would be rigid, So the toe could never overtake the heel. The entire stroke and non symmetrical shaft would provide the action , allowing the head to remain in line . Another thought is to build a putter head that is longer front to back than it is from toe to heel . The benefit of this design is it's easier to aim.

Pop a training grip on the putter (or any club) to ensure the same position everytime. such a grip would especially help in pressure situtions , where the grip has a tendency to change..

18 Ekim 2010 Pazartesi

Trading Psychology

Expectations and sentiment

Fundamental and Technical factors is an essence that can not be denied to determine the dynamics of the foreign exchange market. All that, however, are two additional factors are most important to understand the direction of short-term movements in the market. This can be called also the expectations and sentiments. Very often sounds similar, but not the same.

Expectations is the establishment of data will come from the announcement of economic statistics and finance. Unilateral attention to the value of the announced data will not be sufficient in all learning to reap financial future.

If, for example, U.S. GDP data announced on the value of 7.0% from the previous quarter in which only 5%, and Dollar do not need to move like what you expect to move. If prediction markets had expected a growth of 8%, then read 7% is likely to bring disappointment, so it caused the market reaction is very different from the initial estimate you have come to expect when you are not aware of the actual prediction.

However, expectations can be replaced by market sentiment. This is a general attitude of a market faced with a market value, which could affect the assessment of all aspects of the economy towards a state in question, the overall market pressure, or various other external factors. Using the example above on the state of U.S. GDP; even if the result of 7.0% missed estimates by a full percentage rates, the market still will not react. A possible reason is that the sentiment against the Dollar to be positive regardless of the actual values and forecasts that have been listed. This may be due to the U.S. asset markets are so strong, or weak fundamental condition of the other countries currency. (Euro, yen or sterling)
A term used to replace the "sentiment" is "psychology". 

During the first 2 months of the year 2000, the euro experienced a major selling pressure against the dollar despite improving fundamentals in the Eurozone continuously. That is because as market psychology decided to be more interested in U.S. dollar assets because there are signs that growth does not lead to continuous inflation, and the subsequent increase in sentiment against the U.S. Dollar interest rates will continue to run as a profit of U.S. produce various differential, without releasing lanes economic expansion.

Basic Forex Glossary

in part this time I will discuss some terms related to Forex Basics

Equity (Equity) - the secure part of the client account, considering the open position, which is tied with the balance and thresholded value (profit / loss) by the following formula: Balance (balance) + Floating rate (thresholded value) + Swap (exchange), ie the funds on a client's account is deducted from the amount required for open positions, plus the income for current open positions.

Free margin (free margin) - funds, which are not used for the security of open positions. Calculated using the following formula: Free Margin = Equity - Margin.

Margin (Limit) - The required equity that an investor must deposit to collateralize a position equal to 1% (when leverage - 1:100) from paid positions open.

Margin level (the level of margin) - determine the conditions of an account. Calculated using the following formula: (Equity / Margin) * 100%.

Base currency (base currency) - the unit of currency in which an account, balances, commission fees and payments are designated and calculated.

Balance (balance) - the total financial result of the transaction is fully executed and deposits / withdrawals to / from an account.

Brokers - crediting firm that provides services and support for traders.

Bulls - traders who depend on the currency rate escalation.

Bull market - a market which tends toward the exchange rate continues to rise.

Currency pairs (currency pair) - The two currencies that make up a foreign currency exchange rates. For example, EUR / USD.

Rising trend (trend up) - every time curve appears highest value, compared with the previous exchange rate. The lowest curve points are connected by a straight line - trend line.

Intraday trade - trade that is directed at gains in one day.

Dealing - trade in non-cash currency.

Dealing center - a company that provides access to the money market.

Account history (account history) - a list of transactions and non-trading is complete.

Client - physical or legal parties engaged in activities with the company.

Client terminal (client terminal) - Meta Trader 4.xx software product enables clients to get information about trading the financial markets in real time (quantity determined by the company), perform technical analysis of markets, operate, set / modify / cancel orders and receive messages from dealers and companies.

Trend lines (trend line) - These lines are straight lines, with a positive slope, which is depicted on the graph through the low points when the tendency to rise, and with a negative slope, which is described at points higher when the tendency to decrease. These lines define the current trends. Trend line usually signal changes in the trend.

Client log files - files created by the client terminal, which records all requests and orders sent from the client to a dealer with 1 second accuracy.

Server log files - files created by the client terminal, which records all requests and orders received from clients to the dealer, and also the result of processing, with 1 second accuracy.

Margin trading - using borrowed money to buy securities, in the hope of increasing profits.

Market-makers - the big banks and financial firms that provide liquidity by accepting the other side of the trade in currencies, securities or futures contract.

Initial margin (initial margin) - The initial deposit of collateral required to enter into a position as a guarantee for future performance.

Non-trading operation (non-trading activities) - depositing or withdrawing funds from trading account, or extending credit.

Normal market conditions (normal market conditions) - market conditions that meet the following requirements:

1.Absence of noticeable breaks in relation with quote trading platform;

2.Absence of price dynamics that are too sudden;

3.Absence of the price gap is too big;

Trade operation volume - the number of lots multiplied by lot size.

Open position (open position) - the first part of the transaction is complete, at the opening position, the client has the following obligations:

1.Reverse trading closed with the same amount;

2.To maintain equity of not less than 10% of the necessary margin.

Market opening (opening of the market) - the reopening of trading after the weekend, holiday or after a rest interval during the trading session.

Pending orders (pending order) - the client instructs the dealer to buy or sell when the price reaches the order level.

Complete the transaction closed (closed transaction perfect) - consists of two trading operation opposite and equal (opening and closing positions): purchases followed by sales or sales followed by purchases.

Quote thread - blocks of numerical data that describes the meaning of the price at a specific time period.

Pips (points) - The smallest unit of price for foreign currency, also known as points.

Lot Size (lot size) - total assets, products, or the base currency is defined in the contract as one lot.

Developers (developers) - "Meta Quotes Software Corp.." Is a trading platform developers.

Currency accounting (accounting currency) - unit of currency in which the deposit / withdrawal operations carried out.

Range (range) - the distance between the level of support and resistance levels.

Swap - money resources are reduced or added to a client's account to get a position in one night.

Adviser - type of trading account management algorithm in the form of a program based Meta Quotes Language 4. This program sends requests and orders to the server using the client terminal.

Spike - see "Non-market quoting."

Contract specifications (contract specifications) - the main trading terms (such as spread, lot size, minimum quantity of trading operations, changes in volume of trading operations, movement, initial margin, margin lock, etc.) for each instrument.

Spread - pip difference between the Bid price and demand price.

Account (account) - a special personal account opened by the client in the company. This account is used to offset the obligations of clients and dealers, which arises from an agreement under the present agreement.

Ticker - identification number given to every position of opening or pending order in the trading platform

Trading operations (trading transactions) - When a client buy or sell any instrument.
Trading platform - the set of software and technical resources that support financial market trading information received in real time; processes trading, consider the mutual obligations between clients and dealers, and considering the conditions and restrictions. Conform with current regulations, trading platform consists of the "Server" and "Client" terminals
Trading Account (trading account) - personal stock-taking activities specifically listed on the trading platform, where the transaction is closed, open positions, non-market transactions are fully reflected in it.

Transaction (Transaction) - trading activities where money resources to move from the base currency to the currency demanded and vice versa.

Trader - people who trade currencies on the Forex market for profit.

Trend - direction of price movement in general.

Order level (Level order) - the price of the order.

Support level (level support) - the lowest limit of the channel.

Resistance level (resistance level) - the highest limit of the channel.

Figure - price changes for 100 pips. For example, changes in the price of EUR / USD from 1.3770 to 1.3870 0 This means that figure increase.

Force major circumstances (unexpected events) - events that can not be predicted or prevented. Which include: natural disasters; war; acts of terrorism; governmental action, acts of government authority in both the executive and legislative branches, hacker attacks and other acts of unlawful server.

Hedging - the operation that protects an asset or liability against a fluctuation in foreign currency exchange rates.

Price prior to non-market - the closing price per minute, before the minutes with non-market quotations. Price Gap - occurs when:

1.Offer price is now higher than the price of the previous request;

2.Price is now offering lower prices than the previous request.

Market opening price gap - occurs when:

1.The opening of the market price is higher than the previous market closing price;

2.Market opening is lower than the closing price of the market;

Obvious mistake - the client's position during the opening / closing or client orders at prices far different from the offering price per instrument supply current at the time of processing. Or activity or inactivity associated with determining the dealer pricing error on the current market.

Currency Trading

Currency trading is the largest market on the planet. It is estimated that in excess of US$2 trillion is traded every day. Compare this to the New York Stock Exchange's daily transactions of approximately US$50 billion, and you can see that the magnitude of the currency trading market exceeds all other equity markets in the world combined. The practice of currency trading is also commonly referred to as foreign exchange, Forex, or FX, for short.

Currency trading, or the foreign currency exchange market (FOREX) involves the buying and selling of various currencies such as the U.S. dollar, Canadian dollar, Australian dollar, United Kingdom pound, Euros, and various other currency. The key to making a profit in the FOREX market is knowing when to buy and sell currency that you own. Knowing how to do this requires following the trends for several months before you make your first trade in the FOREX market so that you are educated enough in the trends of the market to make an informed decision. The market is based upon buying currency when it is at the lowest price and selling when it is at the highest price, and to do that, you need to know what those fluctuations in the market are. This is especially important for new traders, but seasoned traders must continue to follow the trends in the markets in which they are trading in order to continue making a profit.

The benefits of Forex trading include the ease by which trades can be made. Actual currency trading takes place directly between the two counterparts, which eliminates the necessity for central exchange conduction. Another benefit of Online FOREX Trading is they are up 24x7! In today's busy market many traders find it difficult to manage their portfolio during standard hours. The internet allows traders the ability to access their portfolio anytime.

Whether you are a forex trader or just curious about forex currency trading, you owe it to yourself to separate the wheat from the chafe. The Internet is awash in foreign exchange currency trading websites whose sole existences are dependent upon ignorant forex investors. From get-rich-quick forex software schemes to free forex training, forex educational seminars, free forex signals, forex forums, and more, the fraudulence that surrounds the fx trading market is frightening.

Currency trading scams often attract customers through advertisements in local newspapers, radio promotions or attractive Internet sites. These advertisements may tout high-return, low-risk investment opportunities in foreign currency trading, or even highly-paid currency-trading employment opportunities. However, you need to be skeptical when promoters of foreign currency trading claim that their services or account management will earn high profits with minimal risks, or that employment as a currency trader will make you wealthy quickly.

14 Ekim 2010 Perşembe

VTB Pneumatische aandrijvingen

Wij leveren pneumatische aandrijvingen welke een zeer gunstige prijs-kwaliteit verhouding hebben. Leverbaar in enkel- en dubbelwerkend uitvoering. Deze aandrijvingen zijn ATEX gecertificeerd.

Documentatie in pdf-formaat


VTB Vlinderkleppen

Vapo Techniek BV heeft een ruim assortiment in vlinderkleppen in vele verschillende uitvoeringen welke geschikt zijn voor vele verschillende toepassingen. Wij adviseren u graag hierin.

Documentatie in pdf-formaat



13 Ekim 2010 Çarşamba

Floransa (Florence)

Floransa (Firenze), İtalya'da bir şehirdir. Kuzey İtalya'daki Toskana bölgesinin başkentidir. Kısa bir dönem, eski İtalya Krallığı'na da başkentlik yapmıştır.

Şehir, içinden geçen Arno Nehri çevresinde kurulmuştur. Çevresindeki yerleşim alanlarıyla beraber yaklaşık bir milyona yakın nüfusa sahip olan şehir, geçmişte olduğu gibi bugün de İtalya ve Avrupa'nın önemli ticaret merkezlerinden biridir.

Bunun yanısıra İtalyan Rönesansının doğum yeri olarak bilinen Floransa, kültürü ve mimarisiyle dünyaca ünlü bir turizm kentidir. Şehirde önemli sanat galerileri ve müzeler bulunmaktadır. Leonardo da Vinci ve Michelangelo bu tarihi şehirde yetişmiş dünyaca ünlü sanatçılardır. Yine ünlü yazar ve şair Dante Alighieri bu şehirde yaşamış ve ilham almıştır.

Görülecek yerler
Kentin merkezindeki en önemli meydan Piazza della Signoria'dır (Signoria Meydanı). Bu meydanın ortasında Neptün Çeşmesi bulunur. Neptün Havuzunun ortasında mermerden yapılmış deniz tanrısı Neptün'ün heykeli, mermer atlar ve etrafında deniz kızları ve erkek deniz tanrıları bulunur. 1565 yılında yapılmıştır. Ayrıca aynı meydanda Michelangelo'nun ünlü heykeli David'in bir kopyası bulunur (aslı Accademia müzesinde koruma halindedir). Bu meydan birçok diğer heykellerle çevrilmiş çok çekici bir meydandır.

Kentin en önemli sanat müzesi Piazza della Signoria'nın yakınındaki Uffizi Galerisidir. Dünya çapında İtalyan Rönesansının en nadir örnekleri bu müzede bulunur. Bu müzeye çok yakın bir mesafede bulunan Arno nehrinin üzerindeki Ponte Vecchio (Eski Köprü) çok ilgi çekici bir köprüdür. Köprüler şehri Floransa'nın II. Dünya Savaşı'ndan zarar almadan tek çıkan köprüsüdür.

Kentin en önemli kilisesi yapımı 1436 yılında biten Santa Maria del Fiore'dir. Genellikle "Duomo" adıyla bilinen bu katedralin kubbesi çok büyük bir mimarlık harikası olarak bilinir ve Floransa resimlerinde her zaman ön planda görünen bir yapıdır. Duomo'nun bir parçası sanılan Campanile (çan kulesi) ve yine hemen yanındaki Battistero di San Giovanni (vaftizhane) de önemli yapılardır.

Floransa'da bunların dışında çok sayıda saray, kilise ve müze yer almaktadır. Pitti Sarayı, Boboli Bahçeleri, Santa Maria Novella ve San Lorenzo kiliseleri, Bargello heykel müzesi, Accademia dell' Arte del Disegno müzesi görülmeye değer yerler arasında yer alırlar.

Florence (Italian; Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany and has a population of approximately 364,779.

The city lies on the Arno River and is known for its history and its importance in the Middle Ages and in the Renaissance, especially for its art and architecture. A centre of medieval European trade and finance, the city is often considered the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance; in fact, it has been called the Athens of the Middle Ages.[1] It was long under the de facto rule of the Medici family. From 1865 to 1870 the city was also the capital of the Kingdom of Italy.

The "historic centre of Florence" continues to attract millions of tourists each year and was declared a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 1982.

Florence was originally established by Julius Caesar in 59 BC as a settlement for his veteran soldiers. It was named Florentia (Flourishing) and built in the style of an army camp with the main streets, the cardo and the decumanus, intersecting at the present Piazza della Repubblica. Situated at the Via Cassia, the main route between Rome and the North, and within the fertile valley of the Arno, the settlement quickly became an important commercial center. Emperor Diocletian made Florentia capital of the province of Tuscia in the 3rd century AD.

Saint Minias was Florence’s first martyr. He was beheaded at about 250 AD, during the anti-Christian persecutions of the Emperor Decius. After being beheaded, it is said that he picked up his disembodied head and walked across the Arno River and up the hill Mons Fiorentinus to his hermitage, where the Basilica di San Miniato al Monte now stands.

The seat of a bishopric from around the beginning of the 4th century AD, the city experienced subsequent turbulent periods of Ostrogothic rule, during which the city was often troubled by warfare between the Ostrogoths and the Byzantines, which may have caused the population to fall to as few as 1,000 living persons.

Peace returned under Lombard rule in the 6th century. Conquered by Charlemagne in 774, Florence became part of the duchy of Tuscany, with Lucca as capital. Population began to grow again and commerce prospered. In 854, Florence and Fiesole were united in one county.

Margrave Hugo chose Florence as his residency instead of Lucca at about 1000 AD. This initiated the Golden Age of Florentine art. In 1013, construction began on the Basilica di San Miniato al Monte. The exterior of the baptistry was reworked in Romanesque style between 1059 and 1128
This period also saw the eclipse of Florence's formerly powerful rival Pisa (defeated by Genoa in 1284 and subjugated by Florence in 1406), and the exercise of power by the mercantile elite following an anti-aristocratic movement, led by Giano della Bella, that resulted in a set of laws called the Ordinances of Justice (1293).

Of a population estimated at 80,000 before the Black Death of 1348, about 25,000 are said to have been supported by the city's wool industry: in 1345 Florence was the scene of an attempted strike by wool combers (ciompi), who in 1378 rose up in a brief revolt against oligarchic rule in the Revolt of the Ciompi. After their suppression, Florence came under the sway (1382-1434) of the Albizzi family, bitter rivals of the Medici. Cosimo de' Medici was the first Medici family member to essentially control the city from behind the scenes. Although the city was technically a democracy of sorts, his power came from a vast patronage network along with his alliance to the new immigrants, the gente nuova. The fact that the Medici were bankers to the pope also contributed to their rise. Cosimo was succeeded by his son Piero, who was shortly thereafter succeeded by Cosimo's grandson, Lorenzo in 1469. Lorenzo was a great patron of the arts, commissioning works by Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci and Botticelli. Lorenzo was also an accomplished musician and brought some of the most famous composers and singers of the day to Florence, including Alexander Agricola, Johannes Ghiselin, and Heinrich Isaac. By contemporary Florentines (and since), he was known as "Lorenzo the Magnificent" (Lorenzo il Magnifico).

Following the death of Lorenzo in 1492, he was succeeded by his son Piero II. When the French king Charles VIII invaded northern Italy, Piero II chose to resist his army. But when he realized the size of the French army at the gates of Pisa, he had to accept the humiliating conditions of the French king. These made the Florentines rebel and they expelled Piero II. With his exile in 1494, the first period of Medici rule ended with the restoration of a republican government.

During this period, the Dominican monk Girolamo Savonarola had become prior of the San Marco monastery in 1490. He was famed for his penitential sermons, lambasting what he viewed as widespread immorality and attachment to material riches. He blamed the exile of the Medicis as the work of God, punishing them for their decadence. He seized the opportunity to carry through political reforms leading to a more democratic rule. But when Savonarola publicly accused Pope Alexander VI of corruption, he was banned from speaking in public. When he broke this ban, he was excommunicated. The Florentines, tired of his extreme teachings, turned against him and arrested him. He was convicted as a heretic and burned at the stake on the Piazza della Signoria on 23 May 1498.

A second individual of unusual insight was Niccolò Machiavelli, whose prescriptions for Florence's regeneration under strong leadership have often been seen as a legitimisation of political expediency and even malpractice. Commissioned by the Medici, Machiavelli also wrote the Florentine Histories, the history of the city. Florentines drove out the Medici for a second time and re-established a republic on May 16, 1527. Restored twice with the support of both Emperor and Pope, the Medici in 1537 became hereditary dukes of Florence, and in 1569 Grand Dukes of Tuscany, ruling for two centuries. In all Tuscany, only the Republic of Lucca (later a Duchy) and the Principality of Piombino were independent from Florence.

The extinction of the Medici line and the accession in 1737 of Francis Stephen, duke of Lorraine and husband of Maria Theresa of Austria, led to Tuscany's temporary inclusion in the territories of the Austrian crown. It became a secundogeniture of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty, who were deposed for the Bourbon-Parma in 1801 (themselves deposed in 1807), restored at the Congress of Vienna; Tuscany became a province of the United Kingdom of Italy in 1861.

Florence replaced Turin as Italy's capital in 1865, hosting the country's first parliament, but was superseded by Rome six years later, after the withdrawal of the French troops made its addition to the kingdom possible. After doubling during the 19th century, Florence's population tripled in the 20th with the growth of tourism, trade, financial services and industry. During World War II the city experienced a year-long German occupation (1943-1944) and was declared an open city. The Allied soldiers who died driving the Germans from Tuscany are buried in cemeteries outside the city (Americans about 9 kilometres (6 mi) south of the city[2], British and Commonwealth soldiers a few kilometers east of the center on the north bank of the Arno[3])

A very important role is played in those years by the famous café of Florence Giubbe Rosse from its foundation until the present day. Piazza del Mercato Vecchio was destroyed (Old Market Square), and then was renamed Piazza Vittorio Emanuele II. It is known today as Piazza della Repubblica, and is the location of the Giubbe Rosse. In those years (the end of the l9th century) the city administration of Florence decided to raze the old neighborhood of Mercato Vecchio to the ground, in favour of a new square dedicated to Victor Emmanuel II. "Non fu giammai così nobil giardino/ come a quel tempo egli è Mercato Vecchio / che l'occhio e il gusto pasce al fiorentino", claimed Antonio Pucci (poet) in the fourteenth century, "Mercato Vecchio nel mondo è alimento./ A ogni altra piazza il prego serra". The area had decayed from its original medieval splendor". Nowadays the literary café Giubbe Rosse is publishing books of famous Italian authors such: Mario Luzi, Manlio Sgalambro, Giovanni Lista, Menotti Lerro, Leopoldo Paciscopi.

In November 1966, the Arno flooded parts of the center, damaging many art treasures. There was no warning from the authorities who knew the flood was coming, except a phone call to the jewelers on the Ponte Vecchio. Around the city there are tiny placards on the walls noting where the flood waters reached at their highest point.